Struggling against Western hegemony | Alexander Dugin

The main principles of multipolar world order

  • Philosophically: real pluralism, diversity, multitude of subjects
  • Anthropologically: inclusive humanism, multinaturalism
  • Geopolitically: complex system of regional powers (Gross Raum)
  • Economically: free trade without (neo) liberal dogmatic
  • Politically: diversity of political systems (dependeing on historical traditions of each people)
  • Culturally: positive acceptance of different identities
Discourse in Thinkers Forum (Beijing)

 

Multipolarity: Greater Eurasia vision  — Discourse in Thinkers Forum (Beijing 02.07.2019)

Map of Unipolar world (UPW) is

Map of Multipolar world (MPW) is

Acceptance of Russia-Eurasia as independent pole is here crucial. The sovereignty of Russia that is what make world multopolar. But the main essence of multipolarity is the fact that Russia alone is not enough to transworm UPW into MPW. Four Poles – USA, EUROPE, CHINA and RUSSIA are sufficient to establish MPW. India comes next.The MPW grant independence to other potential Poles.

MPW is based on the principle of multiplicity of Civilizations. It is real substantial diversity.

Today at least two poles of multipolar world are explicitly present : Russian (political will, geopolitics, territory, weapon, strategy, resourсes) and China (economy, political unity, cultur, ethics, social justice, geopolitics)

Poles under construction

  • USA, accepting multipolarity (or at least political realism) can be third pole
  • (may be most powerful one)
  • India have demographic, economic and political condition to form other pole
  • EU refunded on the ground of European civilizations
  • (outside of globalist ultraliberal ideology) – Populist Europe – can be another pole
  • Islamic societies can create other Pole (or rather few particular Muslim Big spaces — 1. Maghreb/Middle East – Arab, 2. Turkish, 3. Persian (shia) 4. Pakistani, 5. Indonesian)
  • Latin America integrated can be considered as potential pole (Bolivar-Peron projects)
  • Pan-African Union is another candidate

The main principles of multipolar world order

  • Philosophically: real pluralism, diversity, multitude of subjects
  • Anthropologically: inclusive humanism, multinaturalism
  • Geopolitically: complex system of regional powers (Gross Raum)
  • Economically: free trade without (neo) liberal dogmatic
  • Politically: diversity of political systems (dependeing on historical traditions of each people)
  • Culturally: positive acceptance of different identities

Historical challenge for Russia and China:
construction of Multipolar World Order (MWO) based on global cooperation, peace and justice

We need to begin forming the philosophy of multipolarity that should replace the liberal globalist theory (end of history, Western hegemony, world capitalism, unipolarity and so on)

The basis of the MPW is Russia-China multipolar allience. If there is such allience, MPW exists already today. Russia is one of the two major nuclear powers. China is one of the two major economic powers. If we unite Russian and China in multipolar allience, MPW is already here. India joins immediately after. Entrance of India and Pakistann in SCO is symbol of great importance.

BRI project wnen it includes Russia, is precisely the decisive step toward this multipolar allience. Putin recently suggested to link to BRI Northern Polar Road. So BRI goes eurasian.

Putin said liberalism is obsolete:

  • If you agree we need concentrate on Multipolar Idea
  • If you disagree you have no future

Distributed heartland

 

Radical dualism as main theoretical ground for Geopolitics

  • Sir Halford John Mackinder (1861 –1947)  [英]麦金德 founder of Geopolitics
  • “The Geographical Pivot of History” (历史的地理枢纽 ) an article of 1904
  • Opposition between two global Powers: Land Power (Heartland) vs Sea Power
  • Sea Power in history: Athens, Carthage, Venice, Dutch, Great Britain
  • Land Power in history: Sparta, Rome, Austria, Germany, Russia
  • Sea Power: trade, liberalism, democracy, progress, technical innovation, oligarchy, science, adventures, entrepreneur’s spirit
  • Land Power: force, conservatism, hierarchy, order, ascetics, aristocracy, religion, ethics, stability

地缘政治术语
(main geopolitical terms)

  • Sea Power  – 海权
  • Land Power –陆权
  • Rimland  – 边 or  周边 边缘地带
  • Inner Crescent – 边缘新月地带
  • Outer Crescent – 海岛新月地带
  • Heartland – 心脏地带
  • World Island – 世界岛

Mackinder’s Law

Who controls Eastern Europe controls Heartland, who controls Heartland rule the World.
谁控制东欧,谁就统治心脏地带;谁控制心脏地带,谁就统治世界

Rimland concept emphasizes the inner crescent

Spykman’s (1893 – 1943) correction

Anglo-Saxon vision

  • Sea Power is subject (主体)
  • Land Power is object (客体)
  • Main goal: to surround Heartland by the control of Rimland, preventing Heartland to get the access to the warm Seas and to break through coastal blockade
  • Rule the world controlling the Eurasia from the Sea

Anglo-Saxon vision

  • Sea Power is subject (主体)
  • Land Power is object (客体)

Main goal: to surround Heartland by the control of Rimland, preventing Heartland to get the access to the warm Seas and to break through coastal blockade
Rule the world controlling the Eurasia from the Sea

XX century: USA as main Sea Power

  • Future decline of Great Britain and rise of USA was predicted already in the end of XIX century
  • The idea to transmit Imperial mission to USA was present in British imperialist leader Sir Cecil Rhodes (1853 –1902)  and his Round Table
  • Admiral Mahan considered USA Sea Power
  • After Wilsonian involvement in the WWI there began the shift of center of Sea Power from Great Britain to USA
  • Las article of Mackinder was published in American journal Foreign Affairs (published by Counsel on Foreign Relations)
  • After WWII USA was Sea Power par excellence

Foundation of Russian geopolitical (Eurasianist) school – historic momentum

  • The collapse of communist system on Russia disarmed Moscow ideologically
  • Foreign policy and military strategy of USSR were based on the concept of confrontation between socialist camp (the East) and capitalist camp (the West)
  • After 1991 that basic vision was lost. Russia disarmed herself in unilateral way pretending to become as capitalist, democratic and liberal as the West. So no reason to continue opposition.
  • But the West continued to expand NATO to the East swallowing East Europe and threating Russia. That created cognitive dissonance.
  • Precisely in that moment – beginning of 90-s – geopolitics was discovered: in Military Academy of General Staff and elsewhere.
  • From that moment geopolitics became the parallel ideology of Russia or main frame of strategy for Russian Deep State.

Russian geopolitics as Land Power and Heartland

Main principles

  • Acceptance of relevance of classical Anglo-Saxon geopolitics and the basic dualism of Mackinder
  • Affirmation of Heartland as subject (主体). Behemot becomes conscious
  • Identification of USA and NATO as antagonist force, but recognized as subject (主体) too. Chess as two players game.
  • Taking into account German continental tradition (ambivalent in Haushofer and with new metaphysical depth in Carl Schmitt)
  • Discovery of first Russian Eurasianists of 20-s (XX century) with their intuition of dualism Russia-Eurasia against the West
  • Program text Foundations of Geopolitics was published in 1997. Parts earlier – from 1991 as articles and shorter books (Great War of Continents 1991)

Multipolar Project

  • In order to effectively oppose Sea Power Heartland has to restructure the Rimland zone.
  • USSR being strong and powerful wasn’t capable to do that alone. Reduced Russia obviously couldn’t afford it at all. So the idea of conquest by forced was immediately abandoned.
  • The only way to achieve the goal was the politics of alliances directly or indirectly against Sea Power. Rimland can not be Russian. Well, it shouldn’t be American (or West European). That’s the fundamental.
  • At that moment Russian geopolitical school has discovered the concept of Big Spaces (Grossraum), accepted plurality of civilizations that have reappeared after the end of bipolar era and started to develop Theory of Multipolar World.

Necessity of Distribute heartland to other Poles is the main new feature of geopolitics of Multipolar world

Land Power and Sea Power become thus inner choices of each civilization

Challenges of technological progress

presentation made in Beijing Thinkers Forum

Technological progress has reached the point of the passage to the posthuman reality

  • strong AI and Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI)
  • Genome and genetic manipulations
  • 3D printing and replacment of human organs
  • networks being new Life World (Lebenswelt)

Postmodenism and Speculative Realism reflects this on philosophical level

  • Real as nothing (Lacan)
  • Active nihilism  non-philosophy (F.Laruelle, Ray Brassier)
  • Rizoma and schizo-masses (Deleuze, Guattari)
  • Object Orientated Ontology ( Harman, Meillassoux, Toscana)
  • Accelerationism (left — Nick Schrnichek, Alex Williams –and right – Nick Land –
  • Possession of radical Other (Reza Negarestani)
  • Singularity (Kurzweil)
  • Cannibal metaphysics (Viveiros de Castro)
  • Anti-essentialism (subjectivity without subject)

Technic and Being (ontology, anthropology, metaphysics) are profoundly interconnected

Heidegger thought that technic is the METAPYSICAL fate of humanity: through it (as gestell) humanity will cease to exist as such loosing irreversibly the Being (Seyn)

Today we just in that point:
one pass forward and the human will be lost

That demands most radical return to the question what is human?

All modern political ideologies have their own answer what is normative subject:

  • Individual of liberalism (and the global victory of liberal capitalism is responsible for Postmodern conditions and the approaching end of human)
  • Class of communism (tradition concept of classes is not any more valid)
  • Nation (early bourgeois concept directed against traditional medieval society – Empire, Church,  General States)

All this ideologies with idea of progress imbedded in their core are responsible for
achievement of point of the point Posthumanism

So existing political theories are not sufficient to put correctly the problem of Human Being loosing its essence because in them there is no essence : everything is just artificial concept  — individual, class, nation

  • We need to rethink the essence of human on the verge of loosing it irreversibly outside of all 3 political theory of Modernity that have led us to the Postmodern nihilism
  • So we need to go beyond them: I call that Fourth Political Theory
  • Instead of subject of Modernity I suggest to come to Heideggerian idea of Dasein

If Man (Human) is Dasein so the shift to posthuman is the loss of Dasein

  • I argue that in different cultures there are different Daseins
  • So all these Daseins are in immediate existential threat in the Postmodern conditions.
  • Dasein is the relation to Being through the experience of Death
  • Loosing Dasein we are loosing Death (hence artificial immortality essential to Posthumanism)
  • All cultures have their approach to Death and through it to Being
  • Hence the Posthumanism tends to destroy all cultures and all identities
  • It is (post)anthropological meaning of globalism and capitalist hegemony

Multipolarity should be first of all philosophical project and not only geopolitical

  • The Pole in multipolarity should be understood as culture (=civilization)
  • Multipolarity means Pluriversum, plurality of civilizationS, cultureS
  • Anthropologically that means the plurality of DaseinS
  • Posthumanism is globalist, totalitarian and universalist pretending that  such is very essence technic; so Posthumanism is unipolar and more than that – its unipolarity tend to destroy all identities – Western identity included. It is global suicide imposed by Postmodern West on itself and on other
  • Pole is not only sovereignty but above all identity.
  • Multipolarity means the final fight for human identity threatened by Postmodern moment

The main challenge of new humanism and Multipolarity

  • To save and reaffirm in front of approaching Singularity our Daseins
  • And to help to the other cultures – Western and non-Western to do the same
  • This demands greatest philosophical efforts and the fundamental return to the Tradition where lies the most profound roots of our identity.
  • But Heidegger helps us to secure this identity not as something abstract and fixed but always living, dynamic – as something existential, always related to Being on the edge of non-being.
  • So the death obtains here its maximum values – cultural understanding of death – Chinese, Russian, Muslim, Indian
  • Defend Chinese, Russian, Muslim, Indian  ways of life is strictly connected to defense of  Chinese, Russian, Muslim, Indian way of death

China and Russia are in vanguard of multipolarity

  • Hence the first problem is to save Chinese and Russian cultural identities,
  • To defend Chinese and Russian  Daseins
  • The main tools of multipolarity are not economy, missiles, resources, demography, development, technology and so on. They are important but always secondarily
  • Main tools and main goals at the same time are thought
  • So multipolarity depends on intellectuals. In Gramschi’s terms: organic intellectuals should conclude historical pact with Dasein, with peoples against fatal powers of anti-human Technic threatening the very nature of Man.

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